VOCABULARY
( Disease Defenders | Animal Alert! )


Vocabulary terms that are fundamental to understanding the concepts included in MedMyst: Animal Alert! are listed below. Some of the words will be encountered while playing MedMyst: Animal Alert!. They are located in the glossary of the expert menus, so you can click on them and get the definition as you play.

All vocabulary lists provided below are in Adobe Acrobat format:

VOCABULARY (By Expert Path)
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Microbiology Path

Antibody—Also known as an immunoglobulin, it is a protein produced in response to a foreign
substance or germ.

Bacteria—One-celled microscopic organisms that multiply by cell division or binary fission. Cell is typically contained within a cell wall. Found as spherical, rod, and spiral shapes. Bacteria can spread through direct contact, indirect contact, food, water, air and animals.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (dee-OXY-ribo new-CLAY-ick acid) or DNA—Genetic material that contains instructions to make all living organisms.

Encephalitis (in-seh-fuh-LIE-tess)—Brain inflammation.

Epidemiology—A branch of medicine that studies how and why diseases spread.

Fungus (singular) Fungi (plural)—An organism that has a cell wall and a cell membrane. They include molds (filamentous multicellular type) and yeast (unicellular spherical type). Fungi can spread through direct contact, indirect contact, water, air, and animals.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JE Virus)—A zoonotic disease that is caused by a virus and spread by mosquitoes. This disease affects the central nervous system of animals and humans.

Microbiology—The science and study of microorganisms.

Nipah Virus—A zoonotic virus that causes encephalitis on both humans and animals. Fruit bats are the source of the virus.

Nucleic Acid Sequencing—A laboratory technique that is used to determine the nucleic acid sequence (genetic code) of an organism.

Pathogen—An infectious or biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. Examples include bacteria, viruses, prions, protozoa, fungi, and helminthes (multicellular worms).

Protozoan (singular) Protozoa ( plural)—Simple, single-cell organisms such as the amoeba and paramecium. Some have flagella or cilia and are capable of rapid movement. Protozoas can spread through food, water, and animals.

Serology—A laboratory technique used to search a patient's blood for proteins, called antibodies, that a person's body makes to fight infection.

Veterinary Medicine Path

Clinical Signs—Behaviors or characteristics that can be observed during the examination of a sick animal. They can give you an idea of what's wrong with the animal.

Encephalitis (in-seh-fuh-LIE-tess)—Brain inflammation.

Epidemiology—A branch of medicine that studies how and why diseases spread.

Host—The potential victim of a pathogen.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JE Virus)—A zoonotic disease that is caused by a virus and spread by mosquitoes. This disease affects the central nervous system of animals and humans.

Microbiology—The science and study of microorganisms.

Pathogen—An infectious or biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. Examples include bacteria, viruses, prions, protozoa, fungi, and helminthes (multicellular worms).

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)—Clothing, gloves, or a face mask that are worn to create a barrier between you and infectious materials.

Quarantine—A forced isolation of animals or people for the purpose of preventing the spread of an infectious disease.

Reservoir (rez-er-vwar)—Where a pathogen normally lives. It is a constant source of the pathogen and is required for the pathogen to survive. Disease reservoirs can be living organisms, like birds and mice, or non-living things, like water and soil.

Vector—A carrier that takes pathogens from an infected organism to an uninfected organism. They are always living organisms, such as insects, like mosquitoes, or arachnids, like ticks.

Vehicle—A contaminated object that takes pathogens from an infected organism to an uninfected organism. Often vehicles are non-living things, like toys and clothing, or contaminated food and water.

Veterinary Medicine—A branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disease in animals.

Zoonosis—Infectious diseases that can be spread from animals to humans.

Epidemiology Path

Clinical Signs—Behaviors or characteristics that can be observed during the examination of a sick animal. They can give you an idea of what's wrong with the animal.

Case-Control Study—An epidemiological study that compares people with the disease (encephalitis) to those without the disease, cases versus controls. This can determine source of the disease.

Case Definition—Rules epidemiologists use to determine if a patient should be considered a case in an outbreak investigation.

Encephalitis (in-seh-fuh-LIE-tess)—Brain inflammation.

Epidemiology—A branch of medicine that studies how and why diseases spread.

Exposure Odds Ratio—The exposure odds ratio is a calculation that tells you how much more likely it is for the positive outcome group (encephalitis cases) to be exposed to a source than the control group (healthy villagers).

Microbiology—The science and study of microorganisms.

Pathogen—An infectious or biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. Examples include bacteria, viruses, prions, protozoa, fungi, and helminthes (multicellular worms).

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)—Clothing, gloves, or a face mask that is worn to create a barrier between you an infectious materials.

Veterinary Medicine—A branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disease in animals.

Zoonosis—Infectious diseases that can be spread from animals to humans.